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Episode 3 – Joe Newbold: How can music help us to sit less, move more and be more productive?

Episode title:

eWorkLife: How can music help us to sit less, move more and be more productive? (Hint: there’s more to it than go-faster music in the gym.)  Prof Anna Cox in conversation with Dr Joe Newbold.

Episode description:

Professor Anna Cox talks to Dr Joe Newbold, an expert in Sonic Interaction Design, about how he’s managed to combine his passion for music with his curiosity about how we interact with technology. We talk about how we can take our expectations of how music unfolds, and what that means, to help us really focus on our work, or to be more active – in a way that’s much more subtle and sophisticated than just paying high-energy, go-faster music in a gym;  or to be still and really focus on our work. We also talk about how we can use the way music moves us to encourage people to take activity breaks when working and how we can use changes in rhythm to not so much interrupt work, but give people a better sense of time passing – so we don’t just get lost in work and end up sitting for hours on end.

Dr. Joe Newbold is a lecturer at Northumbria University and an expert in Sonic Interaction Design. His research explores how we can use audio interaction to encourage physical activity and wellbeing.  He’s published on how we can use musically informed sonification for facilitating progress in chronic pain rehabilitation and is currently researching whether a music app can help people to both concentrate on their work and take regular breaks.

Find out more about eWorkLife, including tips for managing your own wellbeing and work-life balance, on our website https://www.eworklife.co.uk/

Episode transcript and show-notes: https://www.eworklife.co.uk/podcast/

Follow us on twitter @_e_worklife and @annacox_

Show Notes: Season 1 Episode 3:  Dr Joseph Newbold

Find out more about Joe’s research:

Read Joe’s research publications

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Joseph_Newbold

Watch Joe’s video about his research into how we can use music to help us move more

Music moves us physically as well as emotionally. It can also help us to concentrate. So how can we harness these aspects of music and optimise them using technology, in a way that will encourage us to get up and move more when working, yet at the same time enable us to remain productive?

Visit Joe’s website

https://jwnewbold.com/

Follow Joe on twitter:

@joemaybe

Credits

Music by ScottHolmesMusic.com

Producer: Clare Casson

eWorklife podcast Season 1 Episode 3

Transcript of interview with Joe Newbold

Anna Cox

Welcome to a new episode of the eWorkLife podcast where we talk about productivity, wellbeing, and work life balance. We talk to scientists and others who can help us make the most of our technology to get our work done, to keep connected to others, and to support our health and wellbeing. I’m Anna Cox, Professor of Human Computer Interaction at UCL, in London, and your host for this episode.

In today’s episode, I’ll be talking to Dr. Joe Newbold, an expert in Sonic Interaction Design, about how he’s managed to combine his passion for music with his curiosity about how we interact with technology. But before that, let’s listen to some top tips for surviving life in the digital age from some of our other guests.

Ann Blandford 

I’m Ann Blanford, a professor of human computer interaction at University College London. My top tip for using technology to get the best out of life is to reflect on what really matters to you, and experiment with tools that might help you, but also to work out how to fit them comfortably into your life, and not to expect instant results, because it takes time.

David Ellis 

So I’m David Ellis, associate professor at University of Bath. My top tip for using technology to be your best at work, is to make sure you’re using the right technology. If it isn’t helpful, use it less. If there’s a gap, explore what’s available. If what you want isn’t there, build it.

Anna Cox

Now to today’s guest, Dr. Joe Newbold is a lecturer at Northumbria University and an expert in Sonic Interaction Design. His research explores how we can use audio interaction to encourage physical activity and wellbeing.  He’s published on how we can use musically informed sonification for facilitating progress in chronic pain rehabilitation. We talk about how we can take our expectations of how music unfolds, and what that means, and remap it onto something else, in a way that’s much more subtle and sophisticated than just paying high-energy, go-faster music in a gym. We also talk about how we can use the way music moves us to encourage people to take activity breaks when working and how we can use changes in rhythm to not so much interrupt work, but give people a better sense of time passing. So we don’t just get lost in work and end up sitting for hours on end; or to create expectations of a break, which may trigger us to actually take a break. So let’s get straight into it. Here’s my conversation with Dr. Joe Newbold. Thanks for taking the time to talk to me, Joe.

Joe Newbold 

Thank you for having me.

 Anna Cox 

So I know that you started your university education by studying, electronic engineering with music technology systems and that you did that at the University of York. So, what got you interested in that degree and what made you choose that to start with?

Joe Newbold 

I think definitely I’ve always had an interest in music, it wasn’t something I pursued academically for a long time. It was more of a personal interest but then, yeah, it came time to choose what I wanted to do, and obviously the, the engineering side in computing has is always been an interest of mine. But yeah, looking for something where I could incorporate my kind of love of music and, and the idea of merging those two together and having you know the, the technical and digital sides of computing and how that might play into to my kind of love of music and more creative stuff. But yeah, I didn’t… I think I didn’t really consider when I started that the interplay the other way round, which is probably where I’m more interested in now, is how we can learn from our creative interests and bring those into our more digital lives.

 Anna Cox 

Okay. So, when you chose it, what was it that interested you? Was it like, how can we use tech to make music?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, I think if I’m being very honest it was, how can I do some kind of engineering or computer degree but also get to bunk off and do music at the same time, and it was only throughout my time at York that I started being interested in learning about different audio techniques, recording techniques. And through that, kind of becoming more and more interested in stuff like sonification and audio interfaces through my time there –  which is what then led me into my PhD,  where I started to become more acquainted with areas of human computer interaction and how the way we listen and understand music might play into that.

 Anna Cox 

And what kind of careers does that degree, normally lead to?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, that’s a good question. So, I know there’s a lot of people who work in er game audio deciding audio for games. Some people try and go to films.

 Anna Cox 

And they’re like composers?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, composers, or audio engineers that kind of thing, as well as a bunch of, you know, engineers who have very good signal processing skills

 Anna Cox 

And had you thought about where it might take you?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, I thought I would be more one of those engineers who, you know, had some good knowledge of music. I think I always wanted to do something where I could still have some aspect of music in in my day to day life.  I think it’s such a powerful part of what being a person is about,  is being able to enjoy those creative endeavours. I think I never thought it would be so closely paired with with what I do on a day to day.

 Anna Cox 

So, how did you end up thinking that you might choose an academic career and go and do a PhD?

Joe Newbold 

Yes, so it was kind of through my first contact with audio interfaces. It was it through a series of lectures that… in which I missed the first one, so that is that is the real stroke of luck there, is catching up on that lecture, and it started to really catch my eye and needless to say, I went to all the ones for that series afterwards. And yeah from that I started to really think about more how kind of everything we know about music and understand it and the way we use it in our personal lives to, you know, cheer ourselves up, to get ourselves dancing, to share with other people. How could we bring that into the way we interact with technology day to day – which predominantly is something that’s done a lot more visually and tactilely: we click clack on keyboards and we look around on our desktops, but that we have such a rich, shared understanding of what musical elements mean, of different pitches and tones and progressions, was really started to interest me and pulled me into academic career. When  I started my PhD in UCL was thinking more, how can we share that understanding of music with how we interact with technology and really building sound feedback for, in the first case, physical activity.

 Anna Cox 

So when you say that kind of a shared understanding of music. What do you mean and does everybody have understand music or experience music in the same way? Because I guess I kind of think there’s a lot of difference between what music I might like and what music someone else might like.

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, sure. I wouldn’t dare say everyone experiences music in the same way. But yeah, and certainly through different cultures musical structures mean different things as well, but certainly within a culture, even though we might not make the same kind of music and maybe someone might have a better vocabulary for describing what the different parts of what makes a piece of music up, the majority of people who listen to music on a day to day basis, through the radio or more likely now through their Spotify accounts or whatever, understand what composers are saying in music. And what I mean by that is, there are these shared feelings of resolution and tension. Certain rhythms mean things. If we hear, say, a major key it sounds happy, something in a minor key, it sounds sad.

Anna Cox 

Tell me what you mean by resolution and tension.

Joe Newbold 

Yes, so you know we hear it all the time in the build up to choruses that there’s a sense of building tension, an anticipatio as, you know, the composer or the musician is building up to what we know is going to happen. And then when they finally reach that, that’s what we call the resolution and it’s where you get those… certain songs you get a very nice fulfilling end, and it sounds like they hit that final chord and you go boom, that’s the end of that song.  Where some artists – and this is the kind of joy of composing – I think is playing around with these expectations. You leave it a little bit unfinished and that’s where those little elements of tension or confusion, come from.

 Anna Cox 

I never thought before about how when you’re listening to music, sometimes you know what’s supposed to happen next.

Joe Newbold 

It’s all a series of little, you know hints that throughout the song of where it’s going to go. And the really exciting bits and the bits that you can pick up people’s ears, or the really nice bits which make you feel really content are all either those expectations being defined, or met. Sometimes you might, so we’ll finish in a really weird place and you’ll see a bunch of people sat in a cafe or whatever, whereas play will perk up and look around and see, it’s because that they even if they weren’t listening to it as a primary activity that anticipation and expectation is still there.

 Anna Cox 

So how would you use to be this kind of knowledge about music, to think about technology and physical activity?

Joe Newbold 

Yes, so building kind of on that idea that these expectations of music are kind of core to how we listen to it and experience it. What I was really interested in, the core I think of my PhD work, was how could we then remap that on to another thing. In that case it was physical activity though for general well being as well and for rehabilitation. Because we also have, you know, we have a set of expectations for our exercise when we try and do a new exercise or when we’re trying to improve the expectation of what we can do. And it’s often the setting, and you know meeting or not, of that expectation that determines whether we feel that we are good at that thing, which in turn will determine if we’re going to keep doing it. If I think I should be able to do hundred squats right now, that’s a very high expectation to meet, I probably wouldn’t meet it. And then I’m probably never going to try to do 100 squats again, whereas if we can develop these expectations and build on them, we might have a better chance of maintaining regular physical activity and also not punishing ourselves too much for that lack of progression. So what we were really interested is in sonification, which is the turning of data into a sound of some kind, and looking at tracking the movements people are doing:  when they’re doing certain movement via squats or stretches, getting them to set the kind of parameters for their goal of where they want to go, how deep you want to squat, how far you want to stretch, and using a musical feedback.  So as you move, it would play some music to represent your movement. If we could embed the tensions and resolutions I was talking about in music before, could we encourage you to go a little bit further, or could we make you feel that sense of resolution and contentment, and really reward through the music? So as you reach a certain point, you’d hear that nice resolution of the music, and through that you would think, oh, that was good, I reached the end, not only of the music that you were listening to, but to the movement you just did.

 Anna Cox 

Okay, so I suppose in a lot of exercise classes, like, trainers will put music on, but I don’t know to what extent that music is… like, what the relationship is, I suppose, between what that music is and what they’re really trying to get people to do.

Joe Newbold 

If you think about that, you know, very stereotypical music you could think of in a gym, or the kind of things people put on running play lists, they’ve got a set tempo. And that is largely… it’s partly to do with it another kind of aspect of how we listen to music, which is we like to sync up to it. So, you know if music is playing in the background, you might start bobbing your head to a certain rhythm or tapping your foot, but also when we’re running we like to listen to music that will fit our running cadence, will fit our rhythm. So the music that is chosen in those classes is chosen to meet those expectations and maybe push them a little bit as well, so not have something that’s too slow or too easy for people.  You’ve got to have something that is a steady and reasonably paced rhythm, for all the people taking part in the class. And also have something that is very uplifting in itself. And that’s more the emotional side, where I think a lot of the, you know, there’s these practical benefits or illusions we’re trying to do with the music. One of the more pragmatic aspects of it is that it’s nice to do stuff with music played so there’s an enjoyment factor that comes both with music in the gym and in these sonifications we’re talking about, where people get a sense that they’re doing something creative as well, which is what it’s all about for me.

 Anna Cox 

And so, in the work you were doing, you were trying to see how you can make it… because you talked about how you’re turning movement into sound or data into sound. So were you trying to make the sound adaptive to the person’s capabilities then?

Joe Newbold

Yeah, so, a key concept that I would say within that work is that it’s completely driven by the individual’s movement.  So how we work is we would get a smartphone and using the kind of sensors in the smartphone we would measure the angle of the movement they were doing that is calibrated to the individual, to the movement they can do and is comfortable for them. And then, as they move through the angles that they have set up, it will play the next chord in in the sequence. So the next musical set of notes will play. So, say you’ve set a range of, you know, 40 degrees, as you move 10 degrees the first note will play, the next 20 degrees, we’ll move on to the next note, and so on till you reach that end point, at which point, that’s where we start to do our musical mischief almost, where it will either sound like you have reached the end and you get that nice reward, or we leave it a little bit tense – which we found in the series of studies we did, does encourage people to feel like they really want to push further because they want to reach that resolution and meet that expectation.

Anna Cox 

So as they were kind of listening to the sounds, they were thinking, “Oh there’s an expectation that I do more” and so they would, because the sound didn’t seem to have resolved.

Joe Newbold 

Exactly. And it’s that bringing together… it’s kind of interweaving those expectations of the movement in the music so it’s not even a conscious thought that, oh I want to reach that resolution of the music. We saw, even in the physical measures – so measuring the amount of movement people do instinctively – people kept on moving because they felt even though they had reached the end of what they said they wanted to do, they wanted to keep going. They felt there is an expectation to keep going because the sound hadn’t resolved. So therefore, in the moment, you feel your movement hasn’t resolved, you haven’t reached the end of what you’re going to do.

 Anna Cox 

So more recently, you’ve been looking at how we can use music when people are working in offices or, well, I guess, or doing desk-based work seeing as people are working less in offices now, do you want to tell us about that a bit?

Joe Newbold 

Yes, so in lot of ways it builds off of that work, but looking a lot more long term, so rather than thinking of your activity when you’re, you know, doing some exercise or doing some stretches, how might we encourage activity throughout the day? So one thing we know about people doing office based or desk based work is that they spend a lot of time sitting down, kind of at their desks doing their work. And it’s really important to break that sitting up with frequent activity breaks. So thinking again to that kind of the way music moves us, and the expectation we have to meet different kinds of music. One of the things I’m looking at now is, how can we use music which is also used to help us focus and concentrate. If we’re getting distracted by people chatting around us, moving around the house, knocking on doors, we might put on some music to help us kind of get in the zone. But one of the things I’m looking at now in my research is, how can we adjust that music in a similar way to the kind of changes I was making in the other type, to encourage you to get up and move around every so often, by increasing those elements of the music that make us feel like we want to get moving.

 Anna Cox 

When I think of people listening to music while they’re working,  I often think of young people, right. So, at school or university, and they’re supposed to be revising for something, and they’ve got their headphones on and most likely – and maybe this is totally wrong and this is just what happened when I was growing up –  but most likely I think their parents say to them, “You can’t possibly be concentrating whilst you’re listening to that”, who’s right? Because always the teenagers say, “No, no, that helps me to work”. So who’s right in that situation?

Joe Newbold 

There’s a lot of different factors and it really depends as well on what barrier you’re trying to overcome to help you focus. For a lot of people it is there’s external noises or other distractions, in which case, some sound can be good, especially very calm music with not a lot of changes in it: it helps us to drown out all the sounds that keep changing in our environment; it keeps the soundscape around us a bit more stable, and we’re not distracted by pots clanging or people moving behind us. Another aspect of it – and this is where you find a lot of people who are listening to, you know, more of their pop hits albums or big sing along things, is the internal distractions that we feel.  So especially I think for your example of people revising, it can get pretty boring, and that’s when the mind starts to wander and we start to move off into other things, so bringing in music there as an intentional distraction. Somewhat bizarrely actually helps get us to focus because we’re distracting that part of our brain that wants to go off and not do revision anymore; that’s getting entertained a little bit while we do this, by listening to the music, so that allows us to keep focus for a longer period of time on the piece of work we’re doing. And it does depend on the kind of work you’re doing, the kind of  individual, how, how distractible you are. But yeah, those are the two key uses of music generally through the workplace.

 Anna Cox 

(Interrupting) Sorry – you said that you might need to choose like calm music. Does that mean it needs to be like some kind of lullaby type thing?

Joe Newbold 

Again it’s yeah it’s very dependent on the individual. I know a lot of people who like, kind of, plinky plonky piano music that that doesn’t do a lot, doesn’t move very much, there’s not a lot of variability – or “energy” would be the term we would use kind of musically for it. And for other people that’s too far the other way and it is going to lead to them very being very bored or even some people they find it helps them doze off a bit, so probably not what you want when you’re working. Other people, they’re looking for just something that doesn’t have a lot of changes, stays pretty constant throughout. Maybe some, you know, Techno – something very repetitive that you can learn the changes of. LoFi beats is a very popular genre now which is kind of this instrumental music that has very subtle changes but a very steady drumbeat that kind of gets you into that rhythm. One thing, generally if you’re trying to focus on very complex work or things where you have to do a lot of comprehension, it’s generally a good idea to avoid stuff with words in it. Words are one of the biggest distractors for people working, but it’s also one of the things that can keep us the most entertained. So, if you are looking for that motivational aspect of work, sometimes it’s a good idea, and you’ve really got to choose it based on how you’re feeling, the time of the day, the task you’re doing. It’s something that changes a lot. And one of the things is adapting to those needs, and adding this third need of getting you moving around as well. So how can we almost trigger that instinct to get up and have a bit of a boogie or a bit of a stretch, whatever it is.

 Anna Cox 

So, do you think people can are good at choosing the right kind of music for the right kind of task?

Joe Newbold 

I think generally people are pretty good because it becomes very apparent to people, I think, quickly, if you’re trying to do a bit of work, if something is too distracting, or not distracting enough. In some of the initial studies we’ve done in in prior work in this area, we’ve seen the motivations for why people choose music, and it does tend to be on that mood by mood basis that they’d like to switch it up. Whether those choices are always going to give the best outcomes, I think it’s impossible to know, but I think getting people to perceive that they’ve got the right balance is good enough –  if people feel like they’re focused and they’re being productive. That will be probably a good enough measure for them to be able to complete their work. And yeah, we see very quickly that people are willing to change if something comes on that they either don’t like or is very distracting,  they’ll switch it off for something else, or if something is too dull and they need something a bit more high energy. You see a lot people with with playlists to that effect, they can put on my Friday afternoon playlist or my morning jams playlist that kind of thing.

 Anna Cox 

So it’s not that people are likely to have like a generic work playlist but that they might choose specific playlists, depending on the kind of work they’re going to do because then they can kind of intuitively know what sort of music they need to help them get to this next task that they’re doing?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, some people do have these different kind of “boxes” of music, they’ll go to. Sometimes people have the more generic work playlist of music they like. And we’ll just do it on a song by song basis so a song comes on that’s too distracting you’ll just skip that one. But I think for a lot of people it’s more reactive than that. So you’ll start doing a piece of work with maybe no music, realise you’re not getting anything done, put some music on, and then be able to focus a bit better; or you’re really struggling to get any of this work done, so you turn all your music off and just focus on what you’re doing. So I think, while people are able to do it, I don’t think they’re able to forecast it as well as maybe they would like. Some people definitely do it and they know – especially I think if you have a more stable kind of work tasks, that you know what you’re going to be doing and the kind of concentration that requires you can probably learn that. But I think for a lot of people they have to play it by ear, as well.

 Anna Cox 

Like depending on how variable their work is I guess. And so you said that you’re interested now in how you might be able to also use music to get people to take physical activity breaks. So how do you imagine that to work?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah, so I’d say it’s a tricky thing because focus and concentration is such a fragile thing that it’s really important I think not to disrupt it even for something so important as kind of staying active and being healthy. What we kind of know,  what I’m sure we can all attest to, is things that interrupt us when we’re really concentrated are very annoying! So any technology that you introduce that’s going to help encourage these breaks has to be cognizant of people’s concentration and respectful of  their work. So the idea for the music is that – similar to that kind of ear pricking example we were talking about before, in the cafe where that music where the music suddenly changes and everyone sits up a little bit and looks around. If you’re deep in a conversation or you’re in the middle of reading a good book, you’re probably not going to drop everything and go attend to what’s going on with this music because it is, in the grand scheme of things, a very subtle change, but the hope is that, through those changes in music we can give people a better sense of time than they get currently. I think a big problem with focus and concentration is time getting away from people, and suddenly it’s been four hours and you’ve not looked away from your screen. If we can use those changes in the music –  not to out and out disrupt people and say hey you stop what you’re doing right now you’ve got to you’ve got to pay attention to me –  but give them those kind of almost peripheral interruptions, where you maybe take a little note that something has changed, but it’s not too disrupting, you can finish what you’re doing. And then maybe by the time you finish that thought, go, “The music has changed, it must be break time I’m going to get up and move around”.

 Anna Cox 

So, you were talking earlier about this idea of resolution in music. Do you think that if you’re listening to music and you have that kind of thing in the sound,  that it might influence your feelings towards your work and that you might feel like, “Oh I’m coming to a break bit now”, because the sound has kind of brought that?

Joe Newbold 

Definitely I think, thinking about that in a longer scale it’s definitely a possibility to get people to learn those expectations. I think it’s tricky because going back to the sonification work I did, the expectation we’re talking is on a very small scale, where the language is quite simple. So if I play a piano scale that goes da, da, da, da, you kind of know where that’s going. That’s easier to do. With thinking about work, which is typically for throughout a whole day, the time flows we’re talking about are a lot different, but I think definitely creating those expectations of, “Oh this is where I’m coming up to a break”, or even when the break has happened, the expectation, “Oh that music has changed” you think “Oh, something’s different here, this isn’t what I expected it to continue on” in my “focus” brain, and that has triggered me to think that maybe something else is going on, and what we’re hoping is that people will get active and stretch up a bit, maybe walk around, get a cup of tea, and all that good stuff.

 Anna Cox 

Yeah, it sounds really interesting. Do you use music in this way, when you’re working?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah (laughs), I use music in a lot of different ways. Typically, I’m one of those persons who gets very internally distracted, so I do listen to a lot of singing and I’m one of the people who can’t do anything without some music on. So I need at least something, and typically I go for those higher energy ones but I do, especially now while we’re working remotely and maybe those external distractions to get us moving or removed, I definitely have to put on some more dancing music and maybe have a little jaunt around the kitchen while my tea is brewing, to get that movement in during the day.

 Anna Cox 

That sounds like a really good idea. And do you use it as well when you’re trying to be physically active? Like have you thought about how you use music yourself to encourage yourself to go running or something?

Joe Newbold 

Yeah. So again, that’s something where I personally, I have dedicated playlists or songs that are there to get me in the mood for certain activities, and it’s again it’s partly that linked expectation so when I hear this song, I know this is time to get up and get moving song, or this is the song I play when I’m really working to a tight deadline and I need to push through. Or building those kind of expectations from scratch, using kind of the music that I listen to, and yet you’re definitely using it for different kinds of routines. And similarly, I think, for switching off as well. So, more recently I started having music that I listened to for non work activities. So if I can, you know, do some doodling or reading a book or relaxing, I have some music that that’s picked up for that as well.

 Anna Cox 

So, that’s kind of like a really interesting idea for people. When lots of people have been talking about how when they’re working from home, they’re finding it difficult to switch off from work because they’re doing everything in one place, but you’re using certain bits of music to kind of signal to yourself this is a not a non work time now. This is a relaxing time.

Joe Newbold 

It’s very difficult to bring those differences to bear especially when it’s all in the same place, so I spend most of my working day here at this desk.  I spend a lot of my free time here as well because I’m interacting with all my friends and family online. So yeah, having some things to signal to me that there’s been a change of state, a lot of times for me that is that is music. It’s, you know, whether I’m wearing a shirt or a T shirt, it’s all these different things that you can use, I think, even if you’re not able to distinguish physically that you’re at home or at work. I think having these other aspects to help with that transition I think is really important.

 Anna Cox 

Wow, thanks for that because I think you’ve given people some really interesting ideas about how they might be able to use music to help them in all these different types of different areas of their life to achieve these different outcomes, and it’s been interesting hearing your ideas about how we can embed this in technology as well as solutions to help people. So, thanks a lot for joining me.

Joe Newbold 

Well, thank you. I hope people go away and think about what music they want to listen to now.

Anna Cox 

Thanks so much to Dr. Joe Newbold. You can find him @JoeMaybe on Twitter. You can find a link to his website and access to the show notes for this episode on our website, eWorkLife.co.uk where you can also find more evidence-based tips on using technology to support work and wellbeing. I’d love to hear your feedback on this episode. You can find me on Twitter @AnnaCox_  If you enjoyed this episode, please tell your friends, and you can also leave us a star rating and review wherever you get your podcasts.  Thanks as always to producer Clare Casson. This episode was sponsored by the EPSRC GetAMoveOn Network.  Music by ScottHolmesMusic.com 

 

Credits

Music by ScottHolmesMusic.com